Blended Learning Effect on Student’s Academic Success

In the last decade, technological advancements have changed the face of education. Learners are growing up in a world where information and opportunities are just a finger tap away. Before school systems were founded, kids studied on an individual basis within the family unit. Over time, however, people grew, and societies molded. The schools were established to make information more accessible and available to everyone. In today’s education system majority of students are still attending traditional seat-based model, however, some families are looking for different alternatives that meet their child-centered educational needs. School isn’t the only choice for education anymore. There are so many communication and collaboration facilities for students to learn and work together. Nowadays, homeschool is seen as one of the most popular alternative ways to schooling by many families.

Through reviewing current trends, case studies, and articles, I have tried to obtain relevant information to support my Blended-Homeschool Project.  And my research has been backed up in a strong way. The purpose of my research was to determine if a blended learning approach has a positive effect on the homeschool students’ academic achievements.

Keywords: Blended- learning, information and communications technology, professional development

 Homeschooling – that is, parent-driven home-based instruction; home education – is a well-established traditional educational practice that, a decade ago, seemed to be innovative and “alternative” but is now verging on “standard” in the United States. (Ray,2015)


There are many reasons why parents settle on homeschooling, including disappointment with the public-school environment, instructional methods, or stuffed classrooms; want to join (or prohibit) certain religious beliefs; fear of school aggression; and the need to tailor instruction for special-needs students, just a few of them (Newton and Chittom,2016).

 Definitions, Features,and Models of Blended Learning

 There is a wide variety of explanations about blended learning, however, there is still misperceptions and misunderstandings about what it means. The definition varies from one school to another. One school’s “blended” could be another school’s “hybrid”, or another school’s” mixed-mode”. Since there is no well-defined meaning, blended learning is perceived as some unclear mixture of face-to-face and online instruction (Manninen,2014).  The Clayton Christensen Institute for Disruptive Innovation (2016) provides the most far-reaching definition of blended learning, explaining: “Blended learning involves leveraging the Internet to afford each student a more tailored learning experience, including improved student control over the time, place, path, and/or pace of learning” (n.p.). It is obvious that if novel technologies progress, blended learning definition will keep on changing.

 Defining Blended Learning Models

Even though there are many forms of blended learning models, there is no accepted classification yet. These are some of them to consider: face-to-face driver model, rotation model, flex model, online lab model, self-blend model, online driver model.

Ash (2012) identified three blended learning models:

Rotation model: Within a given course or subject, students rotate on a settled timetable or at the educator’s tact between learning modalities, no less than one of which is web-based learning (Carman,2014).

Flex Model: Instructions can always be derived from the internet and learners can move onward by self-centered schedules.

Self-blend Model: The self-blend model students take no less than one courses online to complement their traditional school’s curriculum. The online learning is always remote, which differentiates it from the online-lab model. All supplemental online schools that offer individual courses to individual students support self-blending (Staker, H,2011).

Why Blended-Learning?

Blended-Learning looks promising for our future education system. In the last decade, blended learning model has been gaining considerable attention across the nation as it brought-and still brings-education to life in the classroom, life at home, and life anywhere outside the walls. It combines traditional face to face classroom learning and web-based learning through the internet. Moreover, it allows students to grow at their own pace and provides the essential skills for this century (Horizon,2016).

Arnet, (2016) has mentioned that blended learning’s most powerful potential benefit is the fact that it can help educators to create an achievement-oriented culture in their classrooms. In addition, he indicates that the real enchantment of the blended learning model comes not from the technology itself alone, but from the ways the technology transforms how educators engage with and motivate their students (Arnet,2016). Osguthorpe and Graham (2003) classified six distinctive reasons that one might choose to use blended learning system: (1) pedagogical richness, (2) access to knowledge, (3) social interaction (4) personal agency (5) cost-effectiveness, and (6) ease of revision. Advocates say the advantages of mobile learning far outweigh the potential drawbacks (Shuler, 2009). Blended learning seems to outperform traditional classroom instruction in terms of effectiveness (Bernard, Borokhovski, Schmid, Tamim, & Abrami, 2014).

Moskal, Dzibuan, and Hartman (2013) expressed that blended learning has numerous advantages such as decreasing the workload of faculty members, leading the way for courses which have an innovative strategy, operative participation of learners and rich learning outcomes. In addition, it is also stated that communication and collaboration between students themselves and with the teacher increase as well (Joliffe, Ritter & Stevens, 2001).

In current education systems, students are a passive audience of lecture, the viewer of slides, note taker of lessons. Blended learning is a student-centered model that allows the learner to take his own learning responsibility. Blended learning gives the learner the chance to interact with other students, educators, and content through the online and face-to-face environment. Schools can enhance conventional classrooms by investigating blended learning choices that customize instruction (DeNisco,2014). Studies from associations such as Stanford University and the University of Tennessee have provided critical information about why blended learning is better than both traditional methods and individual forms of e-learning technology alone. With current information systems, instructors have an upgraded student information promptly and reliably available. According to the Horizon 2016 report, there will be rising amounts of online and blended learning offerings that complement traditional classroom activities. As the report notes, this can take many different forms from virtual laboratories to flipped classrooms. In education, the elements of online and face-to-face are stronger together than apart. Therefore, they must be implemented together. The power of blended learning also comes from online learning. Both the students and the teachers can be more technology literate with Blended Learning since this model corporates with technology. Blended Learning maintains deep learning by promoting continuous learning approaches.

In K–12 education, a recent study by the North American Council for Online Learning predicted that the blended approach is likely to emerge as the predominant model of instruction and become far more common than either conventional, purely face-to-face classroom instruction or instruction has done entirely online (Watson, 2008). Student fulfillment with the blended format is straightforwardly reliant upon the level of collaboration with educators and other learners. Instructors can build collaboration opportunities through face-to-face and personal dialog sessions. To engage with parents and school community, they can use ICT devices, for example, discussions, virtual conferencing, virtual world and web-based games, and utilizing portable tools, such as flip cameras and voice recorders.


Many educators want to identify whether blended learning has a positive influence on learners’ success. There are some inquiries that have been organized a few years ago, SRI international carried out these researchers about Blended learning from 1996-2006. In accordance with these studies’ outcome, blended learning courses surpassed those in fully-online or fully in-person courses. Researched audiences were college students or adult professional students. In 2013, K-12 Online learning, or INACOL in 2013 has conducted a study about Blended learning. It provides an outline of the literature on blended learning for the earlier few years, observing at explanations of the term, models and approaches, tools for personalization, designs of blended learning systems, and standards for proficiency in education. Michael & Susan Dell Foundation led SRI International and published in 2014. The report searched 13 low-income charter schools utilizing a rotation model of blended learning. The research focused on learner production, teacher approval, and the practice of data to give information about instruction. On the STEP literacy assessment, the percentage of students reading at “proficient” or “advanced” levels increased from 36% to 96%. On the MAP* test, 96% of KIPP Empower’s students in both reading and math, performed above the national average by the end of the school year.

National Education Policy Center conducted an inquiry about tailored instruction and distributed in 2013. It observed approaches for effective personalized learning and pointed out that a blend of tech-based and person-to-person based education indicates the greatest possible academic gains. To complement this, AND Corporation conducted a two-year study where they examined the efficacy of a technology-based algebra curriculum in many middle schools and high schools and published the result in 2013. In the first-year study, they found no remarkable outcome, then in the second-year, high school students utilizing the program enhanced their performance. Evaluation of the MIND Research Institute’s Spatial-Temporal Math (ST Math) Program in California,” organized by WestEd in 2014. The report observed the game-based, blended learning math instruction program and determined that as fully executed, it upgraded students’ math scores considerably.

Regarding technology tools and their potential pedagogical impact on student learning, Hew & Cheung (2012) analyzed experimental studies in which Web 2.0 tools were employed in K-12 and higher education settings to determine their impact on student learning. Results indicated that the impact of podcasts, wikis, blogs, Twitter, and the use of virtual worlds was either positive or neutral.

 Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)

Currently, Information and Communication Technologies(ICT)are accepted to be the most influential tools for the help of the teaching and learning process. The success of ICT integration relies profoundly on these three factors: school infrastructure, technical support, and teacher assistants (Venezky, 2014). In recent years many studies had been conducted around the world to see whether ICT help to broaden access to education and improve learning outcomes or not. The case studies examined the factors associated with the adoption of the technology and the patterns of distribution of ICT usage through schools.

Technology usage is rising every day and technological innovations have a moderate impact on students’ success (Ecar, 2015). Information and communication technologies provide exciting possibilities to enhance the quality of education. A well-designed classroom is essential and has a major effect on learning as it leads to inspirational teaching methods and learning styles (Meeker, 2015). Teachers or learning coaches should design their learning space according to their class needs.

Education can be enriched by integrating ICT into traditional educational activities because ICT has the capacity to enhance the learning process. The movability of mobile technologies enables students to access resources and collaborative tools almost flawlessly as they make their personal and educational activities (Corbeil and ValdesCorbeil, 2007; Park, 2011; Wallace, 2011).

ICT must be used to cultivate deeper, inquiry-based learning rather than just providing content. In North America designing the learning spaces was very innovative and it fostered collaborative learning. (Fritschi & Wolf, 2012).




There are some barriers to mobile learning like cost of mobile devices, concerns about the misuse of mobile devices, teachers, and parents’ mindsets and attitudes, lack of teacher training and support. Even though students are using technology extensively in their classrooms, it is obvious that these technological tools not used potentially for academic purpose (Ecar, 2015). Mobile phones are generally considered to be disturbing to education and their use in school is constrained in many European countries. Parents and teachers assume that the devices are little more than distracting toys with limited educational value. Many parents and educators also worry that mobile phones enable inappropriate behaviors like cheating and cyber-bullying.

The ‘distraction factor’ is the primary concern that has led many districts to ban mobile devices from school altogether (Wallace 2011). Many people believe that allowing students to use mobile devices in school would disrupt rather than enhance learning. The Eurydice network, which collects and compiles data on education and training in Europe, published a report in 2009 on the safe use of mobile phones (EACEA/Eurydice, 2010). The report has stated that cyberbullying in schools has become a topic of growing concern in the last few years.

Inappropriate student behavior, including cheating, cyber-bullying and ‘sexting’ is a major concern for administrators, teachers, and parents in Europe. According to recent studies: One-third of teens with mobile phones have admitted to cheating with them, and two-thirds of all teens have reported that others in their school cheat with mobile phones (Common Sense Media, 2009). Twenty-six percent of teenagers have stated receiving bullying or harassing text messages or phone calls (Lenhart et al., 2010). Four percent of teens have informed sending a sexually inappropriate image via text message, and fifteen percent have reported receiving a text of that kind (Lenhart et al., 2010).

According to the UNESCO in North America, perhaps the biggest obstacle to mobile is learning is the way people feel about mobile phones in education. (Corbeil and Valdes-Corbeil, 2007).


Mobile technologies can also support teachers personalize their own professional learning (Bjerede and Dede, 2011). Teachers who practice mobile devices have more flexible access to a wider variety of professional development options. Mobile courses and training programmes are being developed that deliver content in small growths, allowing teachers to take advantage of completing courses in five- to ten-minute intervals, rather than taking a lot of time from their already busy schedules (Vanthournout and Koch, 2008). Teachers are using smartphones, laptops, and tablets to engage and enliven their classrooms.  However, faculty and students need support and training to improve digital literacy (Horizon 2016).


Now, in the center of an informational transformation, parent-teachers have the duty to think cautiously through what model to choose for their children. Technology has affected all kinds of education, including homeschooling. Parents can select options to completely customize their child’s education. There are a wide variety of support systems, curricular materials, and online support services available at any time and at anywhere. ICT tools have opened teachers’ and learning coaches’ horizon. Today’s educator’s job is easier with access to almost limitless content and they have potential to be better educators with these facilities. The influence on the K-12 system has been intense on education. Through online courses, great instructors, and limitless information, the intimidating part of homeschooling has disappeared. The homeschooling is now more about pondering through what parent-teachers want their child to learn and study. There are many websites to support learning coaches to do that. The diverse types of ICT tool provide opportunities for the socialization deficiencies of homeschooling. Although it is difficult to see what the future holds, we can be sure that blended learning holds great potential and will be growing in a few years. Now, there are many beneficial reasons for teachers, coaches or learners to pick blended learning over other learning options.


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Over the past five weeks I learned about Ribble’s nine elements of digital citizenship, before taking this course, I had limited information about digital citizenship. Learning about copyrights and copywrongs was very enlightening. Honestly, there were many things I had not known before this course. This course allowed me to get a good grasp of how digital citizenship can be applied in real life. The required course resources were extremely detailed and helped me comprehend the material.

My biggest accomplishment in this course was learning about digital footprint. I am now more responsibly using digital tools and trying to create positive digital footprint. I have been trying to enlighten my whole family about this, since my children are teens, and can easily leave negative footprints about themselves. The other accomplishment for me was creating PowToon. Even though it took me many hours to figure out the functions of the PowToon, at the end it paid off. I had a very fruitful video that hopefully will inform others the way it helped me.

I must confess that this course was the most challenging course so far. I was overwhelmed by how much work I was required to do. Completing all the required readings, discussion board prompts, videos, weekly assignments, reflections and quizzes were really time consuming. Since this course had distinct types of formats I had tough time until I got used to it. But in the end, I have become even more digitally literate.

My best work for the course was probably the reflections I wrote in every week because it allowed me to think about digital citizenship elements that can be applied in my homeschool settings. Finishing assignments and case studies provided me with deep understanding of the digital citizenship concept. Among the meaningful things I learned in this course, the most useful ones were Digital footprint and Fair Use. I think Digital citizenship is not a one-time lesson and that it is a very important topic. Therefore it should be extended into two courses to make it easy to understand. Because of this course, not only did I benefit, but I have also spread the word to my family.

As a parent, I am even more aware of the importance of cyberbullying and digital dishonesty. I believe now I can assist the other parent-teachers more effectively.

This is one of the most developed online classes that I have ever taken. I must say that the past five weeks have been extremely challenging but valuable to me. Throughout this course I learned very valuable information about digital citizenship It is necessary to learn digital citizenship and its components. I would suggest that the other students should read the weekly assignments carefully and take in information slowly but consistently.

I would also help to take notes and finish quizzes beforehand. Whenever they have chance, they should reread the required materials. Overall, it was very informative course to take to better understand digital citizenship. I fully understood that our actions in the digital world can have an influence on others. I suggest these things because I learned a lot in the course that gave me new insight and value, but it came with hard work.


Ohler, J. (2012). Digital citizenship means character education for the digital age. Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 77(8), 14-17. (PDF: Ohler_Digital_citizenship_means_character_education_2012.pdf)

Ribble, M. (2016). Nine Elements. Retrieved October 7, 2017, from


My digital citizenship mantra is”Be respectful, responsible and productive both in person and online”.

My digital citizenship related video can be seen here


Understanding the Digital Citizenship Elements


In today’s technology-driven world, the internet is the most inclusive and easily accessible source of information. As it is being more available to everyone, schools, educators and parents are understanding that there is another component to education that cannot be overlooked; digital citizenship. Digital citizenship is gaining more attention due to recent events stemming from cyberbullying suicides and other Internet-related issues. The purpose of this literature review is to analyze primarily digital citizenship and its nine elements.

The Elements of Digital Citizenship

Digital citizenship is a very broad topic and everybody has their own point of view about it, but they all come down to the same concept. Ribble (2015) describes digital citizenship as” It is the safe, savvy and ethical use of the Internet. Terry Heik (2015) defines digital citizenship as “The quality of habits, actions, and consumption forms that impact the ecology of digital content and communities”. On the digital citizenship website, digital citizenship has been described as “It is the norms of appropriate, responsible technology use”. My interpretation of digital citizenship is simply being respectful, responsible and productive while using digital environment. According to Ribble and Bailey (2007), digital citizenship includes nine different dimensions: digital access, digital commerce, digital communication, digital literacy, digital etiquette, digital law, digital rights and responsibilities, digital health and wellness, and digital security. Nine elements of digital citizenship are interdependent to each other. In order to make it easy to understand the digital citizenship, Ribble categorizes the nine elements under the three relevant principles: Respect, Educate and Protect.

Digital Access

This is the first element of digital citizenship. Digital access ensures the complete participation of all citizens in an electronic environment and is outlined as “full electronic participation in society”(Ribble , 2017).

Digital Commerce

Digital commerce is the second principle of digital citizenship that means electronically buying and selling of goods. Digital natives are consumer and outcome-oriented so they really like to purchase online. But unfortunately, they do not have the experience to buy things online. They lack knowledge of sensitive information of online shopping. This concept is probably the most troublesome component of digital citizenship for teachers to address in the classroom. Educators may think it is not their obligation to instruct students to be informed, however, online purchasing has become a key factor in students’ lives, making it mandatory to teach all aspects of these online transactions (Ribble,2015).

Digital Communication

The third tenet of digital citizenship is “digital communication” which basically states the exchange of information. In the19th-century people started using letters, telegraphs, and telephones in order to contact people and make business in other towns and countries. Advancements in technology significantly shifted the way people interacted with one another. Out of all of the ways of communications, the internet is the most common tool. For that reason, people need to know the basics of online communication. In daily life, many people or companies use e-mail as it provides a record of the message. The issue of disrespect online seems to occur because of the fact that online communication is not same as speaking to someone face-to-face. Companies are much more disrespectful online than in person.

Digital Literacy

The fourth of the digital citizenship component is called “digital literacy” which is the skill to complete tasks effectively in a digital environment. Digitally literate people can read, reproduce, evaluate and apply new knowledge gained from digital environments.

Ohler (2012) expresses that digital citizenship or “character education” should be the main concern for educators. Technology-infused learning is being universal every day so teachers should be digitally literate to foster a sense of digital citizenship.  Even though digital tools are available in most schools, teachers are slow to transform the ways they teach because many lack the knowledge or skill of using digital tools.  Technology is here to stay, so teachers should try to meet the student’s actual needs and help them in complementing their education using technology in a meaningful way. Instead of participating irrelated seminars or workshops, admins and teachers should get necessary training and guidance about being a good digital citizen.  Designers of digital tools and educators should corporate with each other.

Digital Etiquette

Digital etiquette means being aware of ethical rules while using virtual environment. Common sense, politeness, and respect are the three indispensable components that everybody should keep in mind when digital etiquette is mentioned. From an early age, students should be educated about the appropriate and inappropriate ways to treat one another. It is essential that students transfer that understanding of appropriate behavior into the digital world. They should fully understand that their actions in the digital world can have an influence on others.

Many of the students right now, unfortunately, do not care about digital citizenship and moral values. They believe that they should be allowed to use anything on the internet. Both parents and schools ought to be in charge of teaching children the appropriate meaning of digital etiquette. Everyone, including homeschool students, should also learn to effectively and responsibly use technology.

Digital Law

The digital law is “the electronic obligation for actions and deeds” (Ribble, 2011, p. 31). It involves legal topics like intellectual assets and copyright laws. Copyright laws avoid the reproduction, distribution, modification, performance, etc. of another person’s intellectual work. With the internet, information can be accessed or shared very easily and quickly, but we should always remember our responsibility and consider the appropriateness of the material. While using someone’s work, we should give credit to the author of the copyright holder. Disregarding the laws and obligations do not protect us from confronting the real consequences in the physical world. Parents and educators should address the appropriate conduct, the best practices for technology use and the consequences for misconduct of technological resources.


Digital Rights and Responsibilities

The sixth element of digital citizenship is digital rights and responsibilities. People are establishing connections with other people in the digital world and should, therefore, act according to rights and responsibilities. The Internet provides more freedom and rights than the real world. As long as internet users know their limit and accountability, digital technology has the potential to open many doors. Everybody should be aware of this privilege and should act accordingly. All the internet users are members of the digital world, and they have right to express themselves freely in the virtual environment.  Digital rights and responsibilities are particularly important to my organization because homeschool students and parents are the main users of the internet.

Digital Wellness and Health

Digital wellness and health is another element of digital citizenship which defines the means of being physically and mentally well.

According to research that was conducted, Pew Internet Project (2012) teenagers and adults are very occupied with technology and social interactions. Some 95% of teens ages 12-17 are online, 76% use social networking sites, and 77% have cell phones. Moreover, 96% of those ages 18-29 are internet users, 84% use social networking sites, and 97% have cell phones. Apparently, Googling, emailing, texting and online chatting is becoming a very significant part of our daily life. After this online engagement, while some people can easily unplug themselves from the internet, others might find it very difficult to disengage from the appealing sides of internet use.

Unfortunately, using digital technology frequently can cause a physical and mental disorder. People who are exposed to the internet for extended periods of time have a hard time of focusing because their attention span reduces, and later on in life, they cannot even complete a single task. Alvaro Retana, a notable technologist with Hewlett-Packard, shares concerns about human ability and future challenges and he states that the short attention spans resulting from the quick interactions will be detrimental to focusing on the harder problems, and he expects stagnation in many areas: technology, even social places such as literature”. Another problem that is quickly escalating all around the world is called internet addiction. Like other types of addictions, it makes users dependent and withdrawn from the real world. In the long-term, those types of people can harm themselves or others, and the outcomes may be very detrimental. In addition, children spend a great deal of time with the computer causing obesity, carpal tunnel, and eye strain. Rapidly flashing images can even trigger epileptic seizures, as indicated by authors of “The Impact of Home Computer Use on Children’s Activities and Development,” published by Princeton University. People should be aware of these dangers that the internet holds.

Digital Security:

Digital security is the last element of digital citizenship. Today, increasing number of individuals are consistently involving with digital devices and environments. Digital security covers protecting ourselves and others from outside effects that might cause harm. Throughout online interaction, more sensitive data is recorded, which is why protecting the information should be everyone’s priority. The advantages of technology are apparent – but there are also some security threats. We install security systems to protect our home, and we should possess the same concern for internet connections. We need to be aware of the possible risks and should take precautions to ensure our safety in the virtual environment.

Digital Footprint

Information technology has brought a lot of convenience in life. It has never been so easy to access things with little effort for such a low cost. From the comfort of our home, we can do many things. No matter what the purpose is, wherever internet is used, people leave a footprint behind, which is referred to as “Digital Footprint”. Digital footprints can be left with many ways like web searches, credit card purchases, bank accounts, phone records, medical records and so on.

The digital footprint is unique like fingerprints. It’s like a digital passport that keeps track of where we are on the internet.  We have both an intentional and unintentional digital footprint (Ohler,2015). The intentional footprint is one that noticeable, consciously created, proactive, manageable and controllable. The unintentional footprint is one that is uncontrollable, passive and unnoticeable.


In his article (2001) Marc Prensky calls the 21st-century adults as an immigrant of this age and the new generation as a digital native. According to him, today’s students are the first generations to grow up with modern technology.

No doubt, the internet is the most remarkable innovation and if it is used properly it can be an extremely useful tool for everyone. However, like every other invention, it has a gray side. Children, whose age and psychology are immature to understand the inappropriate contents, face the danger of growing up with a distorted and even psychic psychology due to some ill sites like virtual casinos, internet cafes, virtual matchmaking and pornographic sites.

Instant messaging, chat rooms, emails, and social networking sites might lead problems like cyberbullying. In recent years, there have been so many situations in the media that informs kids are suffering from cyberbullying in and out of the school. Even though homeschool learners’ physical interaction with their friends is limited, they might be the victim of cyberbullying without their parent’s notice. Due to these types of problems, they may have to face terrible outcomes and consequences. Cyberbullying is described as “willful and repeated harm caused using computers, cell phones, and other electronic devices” (Hinduja & Patchin, 2015). It consists of posting humiliating videos, sending hateful-harassing messages, making offensive comments, spreading lies, and even death threats on social media profiles. Even though the online world is open to every age group, particularly the teenagers are the ones primarily exposed to interact with virtual strangers. Since they lack life experience, they are not able to handle possible threats appropriately and they eventually make mistakes.

Ferriter (2011) points out that “Students who see digital tools as vehicles for collective action around ideas they believe in are less likely to engage in risky behaviors online because they see social media spaces as forums for learning first and entertainment second”. Consequently, the problem occurs when students see social media forums as an entertainment first and learning second.


This culminating essay is the conclusion of what I have grasped in four weeks. During this course, I have learned a lot of valuable information. This course provided new insights and a fresh perspective including nine digital citizenship elements, digital footprint, cyberbullying and much more.

I think it was lack of foresight to present internet to the public before preparing the internet infrastructure and rules. It is obvious that digitally literate parent’s only can make a notable difference by modeling and inspire the students with proper usage of digital tools. So, our duty is to instruct our children about being protected online and show how to be a good Digital Citizen. If we show and challenge our learners to think about appropriate ways to utilize technology tools, they could think critically and interact responsibly in our digital world (Common Sense Media, 2016).

The Internet is being an important part of teaching and learning every year.   Nevertheless, many students, educators, and parents still do not know how to use technology appropriately. Like every innovation, the internet has some cons. While enjoying the advantages of the internet, we should be aware of its dark side and take the necessary steps to avoid online hazards. At school digital citizenship should be given as a curriculum. Every year educators are facing diverse types of problems. Students’ problems and needs are exposed to change; therefore, rules and policies should be altered to meet learner needs in schools. There should be programs that are prepared by the school community. These communities should consist of teachers, counselors, librarians, educational technology and curriculum specialists, and IT managers. All the members should actively engage in the process and take the required training for the success of the program. After all, is done, students can be expected to behave as they should in the digital world, both within the school and outside of the school.




Ferriter, W. M. (2011). Digitally Speaking. Educational Leadership68(7), 92.

Heick,T. (2013). The Definition of Digital Citizenship. Retrieved from

Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2015). Bullying beyond the schoolyard: Preventing and responding to cyperbullying. (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Ohler, J. (2012). Digital citizenship means character education for the digital age. Education Ohler, J. (2012). Digital citizenship means character education for the digital age. Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 77(8), 14-17. (PDF: Ohler_Digital_citizenship_means_character_education_2012pdf)

Ohler, J. (2015). Digital Footprints, Digital Citizenship Beyond School. Retrieved September 16, 2017, from

Prensky, M. (October ,2001). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants, 9(5). Retrieved October 4, 2017, from

Rainie, J. A. (2012, February 28). Main findings: Teens, technology, and human potential in 2020. Retrieved October 05, 2017, from

Ribble, M. (2011). Digital citizenship in schools. Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education.

Ribble, M. (2015). Digital Citizenship in Schools: Nine Elements All Students Should Know. International Society for Technology in Education.

Nine Elements. (n.d.). Retrieved October 06, 2017, from

Subrahmanyam, K., Kraut, R. E., Greenfield, P. M., & Gross, E. F. (2000). The Impact of Home Computer Use on Children’s Activities and Development. Retrieved September 27, 2017, from








This week in Digital Citizenship class we focused on cyberbullying issue. After reading required text book and watching videos I gained a new insight and a fresh perspective on cyberbullying. Especially Monica Lewinsky’s video: “The price of shame” was eye-opening for me. One more time I understand that making empathy is crucial in every aspect of life because a world without it would be chaotic and vulgar.

No doubt, internet is the most remarkable innovation and if it is used properly it can be an extremely useful tool for everyone. However, like every other invention it has gray side that people need to be aware of it. Apparently instant messaging, chat rooms, emails and social networking sites are leading diverse types of problems like cyberbullying, pedophiles, pornography and bad reputation.   In recent years there have been so many situations in the media that informs children are suffering from cyberbullying in and out of the school and the number of the victims are increasing every day. Due to literal distance some people speak more straightforwardly, harsher or crueler than their real-life interactions with the other people. So, what is cyberbullying? Cyberbullying is described as “willful and repeated harm caused using computers, cell phones, and other electronic devices” (Hinduja & Patchin, 2015). Cyberbullying consists of posting humiliating videos, sending hateful-harassing messages or even death threats, spreading lies, making offensive comments on social media profiles.

There are several types of cyberbullying. These are frequently encountered types of cyberbullying ones: Harassment, flaming, exclusion, outing, masquerading.

Even though online world is open to every age group particularly the teenagers are the most exposed to interact with virtual strangers. Since they do not have enough life experience most of the time they are not able to handle possible threats appropriately and make mistake. It is so sad to see that our kids are suffering from cyberbullying.

My generation was so lucky because after school we could go out of our homes and play games with friends on the streets. But this century’s children’s life style has changed due to technologic innovations. Moms and dads are both working, they came very tired and exhausted from work. Unfortunately, most of the parents are using digital tools like a nanny. Parents often do not know what games their kids play or what website they enter. They are not aware the hazard they may encounter. They close their door to foreigners but welcome numerous ones by internet. Or another handicap is arising silently. Parents have different points of view about using technology. While one of the parent give permission using technology the other one tries to limit and control the kid. In between two different idea kids do not know which approach is the correct one. Generally, kids take advantage of it.

What can be done to avoid online threats? Children use technology to search, communicate and socialize. At this point, courtesy, respect, common sense is three critical component that should be taught to our kids at home. Gist of the matter we should teach our kids to treat others the way they want to be treated.  We must make sure that our children are safe on their own. If it is not safe playing on   the street alone it must not be safe also to play games on the internet alone. First responsibility is parents then teachers and whole society.

We are now establishing connections with other people, both physically and in the digital world.  Just as we act according to our rights and responsibilities in the physical world, similar norms apply to digital environments. At school digital citizenship should be given in curriculum. Every year educators are facing diverse types of problems Students problems and needs are changing therefore rules and policies should also be changed in schools. There should be programs that is prepared by school community. This community should consist of teachers, counsellors, librarians, educational technology and curriculum specialists, IT managers. All the members should actively engage to the process and take the required trainings   for success of the program. After all this is done students can be expected to behave as they should be in the digital world, both within the school and outside the school.




Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2015). Bullying beyond the schoolyard: Preventing and responding to cyperbullying. (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Cyberbullying What Is Cyberbullying? [Digital image]. (n.d.). Retrieved September 30, 2017, from


Castile, H. (2013). Cyberbullying : an exploration of secondary school administrators’ experiences with cyberbullying incidents in Louisiana. [Beaumont, Texas] : Lamar University, 2013.

Cyberbullying. [electronic resource (video)] : cruel intentions. (2007). New York, N.Y. : Films Media Group, [2007], c2006.

Hébert, M., Cénat, J. M., Blais, M., Lavoie, F., & Guerrier, M. (2016). Child sexual abuse, bullying, cyberbullying, and mental health problems among high schools students: A moderated mediated model. Depression And Anxiety33(7), 623-629. doi:10.1002/da.22504

Machimbarrena, J. M., & Garaigordobil, M. (2017). Bullying/Cyberbullying in 5th and 6th grade: Differences between public and private schools. Anales De Psicología33(2), 319-326. doi:10.6018/analesps.33.2.249381

Williford, A., & Depaolis, K. J. (2016). Predictors of cyberbullying intervention among elementary school staff: The moderating effect of staff status. Psychology In The Schools53(10), 1032-1044. doi:10.1002/pits.21973


imagesI can say this week was very overwhelming and stressful for me because my daughter and my little son were both sick. Beside that I had to deal with a lot of other things. After reading and viewing videos on plagiarism, copyright infringement, fair use, and other required topics I have gained a lot of valuable information but to be honest, some of the things are still unclear to me. My hope is when I have time I will carefully reread and try to understand the cloudy parts of copyrights and copywrongs.
I would like to share this week’s learning outcomes with you:
Information technology not only has brought opportunities but also responsibilities to us. While we communicate, meet and share information we need to act more responsibly. Whether we are writing an essay, a book or preparing a lesson to present information in multiple formats, at some point, we use someone else’s work. While doing this we need to get permission from the original author or copyright holder. Author or copyright holder work very hard to create something unique and we took them in a few seconds and most of the time we do not give credit. We need to treat others the way we want to be treated. So what is copy right?
Copyright is the legal right to use and copy the information, thoughts, works of art and product that a person or persons intellectual labor. Copyrights begin with the production of the work and they generally apply for a certain period of time. To gain a right we do not need registration. The copyright symbol is a ” C ” in the circle, indicating that person copyright is protected. Copyright protection is one of the basic human rights. Whether the C symbol is used or not; if you have original idea and product that means your work is copyrighted as long as you create a tangible form of your work. According to Article 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.
Plagiarism: Using another person’s words, ideas, or information without acknowledgment is called plagiarism. It has been defined by the Encyclopedia Britannica as “the act of taking the writings of another person and passing them off as one’s own.”
It was interesting to learn that plagiarism often covers things that are not covered by copyright. Ideas, facts and general plot elements are all things that can be plagiarized, but generally don’t qualify for copyright protection (Bailey, 2013).
Copyright infringement: A copyright infringement is a violation of an individual or organization’s copyright.
Attribution: It is an acknowledgment as a credit to the copyright holder or author of a work.
Transformation: I am not sure about this but my understanding from transformation is copying of copyrighted material for a limited purpose and commenting upon, critiquing or parodying a copyrighted material.
In addition, I have also grasped what Fair Use is. It basically gives exceptions to the rights of copyright holders in particular cases, permitting people to use portions of works for non-profit, academic, and other purposes only if those users stay within certain limits.
As parent-teachers, we have the vital role to teach our kids the value of respecting other people’s work and words and show how to avoid the risks and consequences of plagiarism and other types of academic dishonesty. Our children should know that like any kind of stealing plagiarism is also a type of stealing and it is wrong. Modeling is a highly effective instructional strategy in that as it allows kids to understand the new practice. Children are influenced by the people around them, but our actions and attitudes have the strongest influence on them.Setting a good example is our most significant duty to our kids.


Attribution (copyright). (2017, August 30). Retrieved September 19, 2017, from

Bailey, J. (2013, October). The Difference Between Copyright Infringement and Plagiarism – Plagiarism Today. Retrieved from

Christenson, P. (2012, November 13). Copyright Infringement Definition. Retrieved 2017, Sep 18, from of academia

Dhammi, I. K., & Ul Haq, R. (2016). What is plagiarism and how to avoid it? Indian Journal of Orthopedics50(6), 581-583.

Jawad F. Plagiarism and integrity in research. J Pak Med Assoc 2013;63:1446-7.

Pechnick JA. A Short Guide to Writing about Biology. 4th ed. New York: Addison Wesley Longman; 2001.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (n.d.). Retrieved September 19, 2017, from


Espejo, R. (2009). Copyright infringement. Detroit : Greenhaven Press, c2009.

Leonard, K. (2009). Copyright or Copy Wrong?. American Libraries, (1/2), 79.

Plagiarism 2.0. [electronic resource (video)] : Information Ethics in the Digital Age. (2011). New York, N.Y. : Films Media Group, [2011], c2011.

Prasad, A., & Agarwalai, A. (2009). Revisiting the Historical ‘Copy-wrongs’ of ‘Copy-rights’! Are we resurrecting the Licensing era?. Journal Of International Commercial Law & Technology4(4), 231-237.

Starovoytova, D. (2017). Plagiarism under a Magnifying-Glass. Journal Of Education And Practice8(15), 109-129



The Internet has changed our lives and the way how we interact with one another. It has never been so easy to access in so little effort for so low cost. From the comfort of our home, we can do many things by using the internet: searching, surfing, chatting, learning, entertaining, making money, or wasting time. No matter what the purpose is whenever we use the internet we leave a mark behind us called digital footprint.

A few years ago, my friend and I were having a conversation and I was telling her about a newly opened store close to my home and how clean and nicely designed it was. The next day, related ads popped up on my smartphone screen. I was worried that my smartphone might be listening into my conversations. I thought it was not a coincidence. I take my phone everywhere with me. After searching up about it I have learned that what I buy, what I research, what ads I see or share online are recorded. Now I am more careful about my online activities. It was very interesting to learn companies, marketers, and advertisers use cookies to track our online interest and preferences. Our dilemma is even though we know a lot of information about us is stored with/without our knowledge, most of us still use default settings on our phone or PCs. In addition, we do not invest time to learn how to handle privacy issues. This week we have focused on the digital footprint. I have gained extensive knowledge about digital footprint and shared them with my family. The digital footprint is unique like our fingerprints cause us to leave characteristic traces behind us. We have a both an intentional and unintentional digital footprint(Ohler,2015). The intentional footprint is one that noticeable, consciously created, proactive, manageable and controllable. The unintentional footprint is one that is uncontrollable, passive and unnoticeable. We can leave our digital footprint with many ways like web searches, credit card purchases, bank accounts, phone records, medical records and so on. I think the most important one is our credit card statements since our lifestyle is hidden in them and they give a lot of confidential information about us. Web searches is another place that provides data about us. Moreover, websites give personalized advertisements according to our search behaviors. GPS sensors show our exact location where we go that can be stored for later use or tracked by third parties. Our social media accounts allow others to track every minute of our life our information is accessible by website managers. As we see we are leaking plenty of information about us without realizing it for companies our digital footprints are valuable commercial resources. They share or sell this gathered information to third party companies. In the digital world, we need to learn to make meaningful contributions and take more responsibility for our actions. We should always remember If we post something on the internet even if we delete, it stays there forever. there are some positive aspects of the digital footprint as well. I have fully understood the fact employers are following employee trail’s, Now I know how to control and keep professional of my digital footprint. I am more careful while giving out my confidential information, sending and receiving e-mails, or sharing social media. A few days ago, I have done my footprint search. I did not have any negative results. But I have realized that I need to create a positive digital footprint. I have a profile on Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, LinkedIn,.I am proud of and comfortable with it being viewed by my employer or other persons.

As a conclusion, I would like to say we should always remember If we post something on the internet even if we delete, it stays there forever. It is vital to consider what trail of data we are leaving behind, the less we leave marks on the Internet, the better for us. In the digital world, it is our duty to learn to make meaningful contributions and take more responsibility for our actions.



Ohler, J. (2015). Digital Footprints, Digital Citizenship Beyond School. Retrieved September 16, 2017, from


Digital footprint. (2016). Salem Press Encyclopedia,

Kurtis, H. (2013). What size is your digital footprint?. The Phi Delta Kappan, (7), 14.

Stephen D., W., & Mark, G. (2007). Constructing, Visualizing, and Analyzing a Digital Footprint. Geographical Review, (3), 324.

THE TECHNOLOGY TAIL A Digital Footprint Story. (2017). Kirkus Reviews85(14), 407.

Wang, X., Fang, Z., & Guo, X. (2016). Tracking the digital footprints to scholarly articles from social media. Scientometrics109(2), 1365-1376. doi:10.1007/s11192-016-2086-z




Homeschooling in Us is growing at a strong pace. If current growth continues, the number of students will exceed 2 million by 2018. With the help of technology, this number will probably double.

 Why do parents choose to homeschool?

-To provide children a higher quality education

-To support a learning-disabled child

-To have more quality family time

-To make a change from a negative school environment

-To protect from bullying in school

-To give children a religious education

Even though your decision to homeschool can be based on many reasons, the common idea is you want better education for your children. As parent-teachers, we all see that homeschool is more responsive to our children individual needs and interests by being flexible and self-paced.

You have a huge responsibility and accepting your knowledge and skills as it is, might hinder your and your children’s abilities. You are the main resource your kids to use to support themselves but you don’t feel contented and confident with teaching a specific subject. Believe your ability to learn and implement new instructional strategies. Technology tools are designed to foster your teaching. At first making big instructional changes can be a challenging process but at the end, it all pays off. As you begin using digital tools, you will see great advantages for your homeschool curriculum. With the advances in technology, resources for home schooling has grown enormously. You should learn to keep up with it. Blended-learning is the perfect fit for homeschool as it gives the learner the opportunity to really dive into technology. You can get the traditional homeschool method and add all the option that the internet allows.Here are eight benefits that blended learning brings to the homeschool setting.

Here are eight benefits that blended learning brings to the homeschool setting.

  1. Improves the quality of teaching and learning
  2. Enables student to learn at his own pace
  3. Instills a love in learning
  4. Engages student
  5. Increases student success
  6. Promotes student ownership
  7. Provides student autonomy
  8. Prepares students for real-world skills

In today’s information and science driven world learners are very busy with the opportunities. They all are competing for good positions. if they are equipped for the necessary changes they can be independent and lifelong learners. Good parenting requires continual awareness and growth. Enhancing your teaching does not mean using technology as a baby sitter. Only Meaningful use of technology can increase your child success. Life is about balance; too much and too little can harm your children.This week I have prepared an elevator pitch for my article.I have preferred to use adobe-spark as it is user-friendly.

Here is the video link :