ext The Digital Learning and Leading program at Lamar University was a long and challenging journey for me. However, my dream became a reality with arduous work and dedication. Each course provided me with many new insights and relevant education skills. I loved the way the program was planned and executed. The sense of community was fostered throughout the program which showed me that I wasn’t alone in this journey and that many of my doubts and struggles were experienced by other people. I enjoyed how I had to look from different perspectives in each assignment to fully understand and complete them. I also learned to be more proactive, prepared and organized. I’m certain that this experience has made me a better educator.

5302 Concepts of Educational Technology: I have learned what digital literacy means and how it impacts educational change in the digital world. I also explored the benefits of collaboration and engagement in a digital environment.

5303 Applying Educational Technology: Portfolio: I have learned how to create my own e-portfolio. To promote a deeper learning, I was required to create my own e-portfolio and use the COVA Model. This model gave me the freedom to choose how I wished to organize, structure and present my evidence of learning. I had ownership of the e-portfolio. I was free to select my project and portfolio tools. This allowed me to use my own voice to revise and restructure my work.

Throughout the program, I continued shaping and molding the content of my blog to make it concise, attractive, and easy to navigate. I experimented with different templates, plug-ins, and related technologies to improve my site. E-portfolio helped me document what I have done, what I am doing, and what I hope to do in the future.

5304 Leading Organizational Change: I created a plan for organizational change and developed a 4DX plan as a foundation for my innovation plan implementation strategy. In this course, I was asked to establish my “Why” statement. I learned how important it was to start with a well-defined “Why” and appeal to the heart of people.

Learning the six sources of influence assisted me to realize the features of a self-differentiated leader. I then understood how to outline the six sources of influence to gain the desired results. After the Influencer model, I sifted through the other model, which is called the 4DX. This model taught me how to help change people’s behavior in the whirlwind of daily life. I have internalized how I can effectively execute any plans utilizing this model. This model helped me understand what needed to be done to have success. I have concluded that both models focus on the implementation of a goal.

At the end of this course, I was able to build a solid execution strategy for my innovation project. It was a wonderful opportunity to apply what I learned directly to my organization.

5305 Disruptive Innovation in Technology: I was asked to review the literature on educational technology and disruptive innovation, and look for trends and patterns that would help me identify and propose an innovation project. Thanks to this course, I was able to comprehend my role in leading change and my responsibility in leading my learning communities through this process. In this course, I created my first video. I learned the sense of urgency. I learned life lessons from leaders to make a change, and this was one of the most effective ways to start the route of change for my organization. As a change agent, I apprehended that I needed to continually educate those around me.

5313 Creating a Significant Learning Environment: In this course, I outlined my learning philosophy. I researched what was essential in creating a significant learning environment, and using backward instructional design principles, I created an instructional plan. I classified, analyzed and utilized constructivist theories. They helped me create and implement a significant digital learning environment. I was able to make meaningful connections and realized how a shift to a more holistic view of learning can bring about a change in learning environments. After completing this course, I was able to realize what the role of a growth mindset has on creating an effective learning environment.

5314 Digital Learning in Local-Global Context: Examining the global educational technology innovation projects provided me real-life feedback to determine what worked and what could be done better. I was able to apply those lessons learned to my innovation plan. In addition, case studies provided information about the issues that are often faced in ICT-implementation and the lessons that have been learned through experience. I created a presentation that improved my initiative by learning from other failures and accomplishments.

5315 Assess Digital Learning Instruction: I developed a plan for assessing or measuring the impact and success of my innovation plan on my learning environment. I was able to identify and articulate the research topic, the purpose of my study, and the fundamental action research question. Action research is the perfect method and solution to change and improve students’ education. I prepared my action research outline and timeline.

5316 Digital Citizenship: During this course, I developed an understanding of the elements in digital citizenship, appropriate and creative ways of digital interaction. I analyzed the examples of ethical, responsible, and safe technology usage.

5317 Resources Digital Environment Resources: This course allowed me to explore many types of media resources in the digital environment. I used a media to communicate my idea successfully.

5318 Instructional Design Online Learning: I investigated the instructional design and learning theories as well as analyzing teaching styles. I spent a lot of time at the Schoology website until I adapted with the interface to plan my online course. I was able to create and build an online course prepared for homeschool students and parents.

5388 Special Topics Technology: I had an opportunity to sift through the 5 disciplines of effective professional development. I was asked to create a presentation that would point to and convince parent-teachers for the need for alternative professional development. For this purpose, I created another presentation and a video. Then, I organized and presented all the components of my professional development plan by using my BHAG. I believe this course has provided me with a wonderful experience and insight. I formed an alternative online PD plan that provided the overview and guidelines for the Professional Development that I need to support my innovation plan.

5320 Synthesis of Digital Learning and Leadership/Capstone: I understood how the COVA approach has aided me in my learning process. In this course, I was asked to reflect on my innovation project. I organized and analyzed my innovation project by evaluating learning process, assessing the lessons learned, and applying these insights on how I planned to complete and promote the project.

Thank you for providing me with this educational experience.Here is my video:


5317 Digital Environment Resources

images (5)Technology Integration Tools for Homeschooling

When I was a little kid life was simpler but more joyful. There were countless things that could make me happy. Even the tiny things used to put a big smile on my face. I still remember how excited I was when I got my new pair of shoes during a traditional festival. This simple gift from my parents was a blessing at the time. As I grew older I came to realize that being happy is not a painless process. To be happy and successful, I had to know myself, my values, and my potential. In order to be productive and effective, I had to know what I was passionate about, what I was expecting from my life and what I could do to reach those desires and expectations. Many years passed while I was trying to learn my strengths and weaknesses. When I consider my entire life, I conclude that teaching and learning have been two things in my life that I am most passionate about.

They keep fueling me up whenever I lose my direction on the way to improvement.
I have faced many hardships in my life. They have only made me a stronger, more proficient person. Among those hardships and tedious transitions, the shift of public school system to homeschool education system seemed to be one of the hardest. But this is not the main point. The point I am trying to make is that going through this difficult experience has given me the opportunity to understand and support others in similar situations. In Raindrop foundation, I have begun supervising new homeschool parents. This has been a unique chance to play such a special role in my colleague’s lives because child education is the biggest challenge for many homeschool parents.

I am not only training them about blended learning in homeschool settings, but I am also assisting them to be responsible and digitally literate homeschool parents in society. They improve themselves and acquire the necessary skills they need. It may take time and effort to achieve the desired results, but in the end, they will all be proficient homeschool parents. Teaching new innovations about better resources such as homeschooling opportunities are essential. This is why homeschooling is inspired by the parents of today.

The number of parents choosing to homeschool their child is growing 7 times faster than those who choose to send them to school. This is a great growth; however, the technology tools and resources are not being used to its full extent. It came to my attention that most of the parent-teachers are shying away from utilizing technology tools. When I searched, I have found that there are some barriers that prevent technology integration in a homeschooling environment. While some of the parent-teachers do not have enough training in technology, the others do not want to come out of their comfort zone. Having fixed mindset, focusing on standardized tests and the lack of resources were some of the other reasons. Simple barriers like these are causing bigger problems for the resources available in homeschooling settings.

Parents of homeschooled learners were surveyed to find out what type of curriculum they used for homeschooling their children. The result was that most of the parent-teachers used a curriculum they got through a homeschooling catalog, other retailers, and the public libraries. Approximately half of the homeschooled students used curriculum or books from homeschooling organizations. Other sources were gotten from a church, synagogue or other religious institution or a public school (Princiotta, Beilic, & Champion, 2006).

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The best way to develop child is to start by improving ourselves because we are actively involving in our children’s achievement and accountability. We are doing something worthwhile, that’s why constantly moving forward is imperative to grow and develop our knowledge. For this purpose, we should embrace technology and enhance our teaching.

In the beginning, I have made a mistake and followed traditional homeschool approach it was a trial-and-error type. I tried using textbooks and workbooks for every subject. It was overwhelming because I had to prepare 5 different subjects every day. Later, I realized that this was a boring and unfruitful way to teach. Over time, my home-schooling philosophy and teaching method have evolved. I want to take advantage of blended learning and make my organization more powerful and effective. This model has allowed me to use more technology based learning and provided flexible learning options for my daughter.

Our lives have shifted drastically due to technological innovations, and in almost every aspect of life, we prefer to use technology to save time, money, or efficiency. Hybrid online schools, virtual online centers, and social technology options are evolved and continue to evolve in America (Apple, 2007). Homeschool families can take advantage of the wide variety of education technology available to teach subjects that are particularly difficult or subjects with which the parent is not familiar with (Andrade, 2008).

We are responsible for our kids’ achievement. According to The Center for Applied Research in Educational Technology (CARET) technology integration positively effects student achievement and academic performance. The lack of integration with technology may lead to the destruction of the whole education. Therefore, students must learn both the skills used in a collaborative environment and the skills used in an independent environment. I strongly believe that if blended-learning is properly implemented, it raises students’ engagement, learning, and achievement. There are many digital tools that can be used in homeschool education. Brian Ray (2010) found that homeschool students who used computers gained a 3% improvement in their reading skills when compared to those who did not use it. The chosen tools should be user friendly and easy to navigate. I know we all are busy with the daily whirlwind, however, too many instructions and complex tools can cause misunderstanding for our kids.

Another research showed that technology combined with homeschooling provided limitless opportunities for progress and ease to get available homeschooling materials, programs, and virtual learning (Isenberg, 2007).

As a learning coach, we can increase our quality of our teaching and be more successful. In his study, Andrade (2008) found out that there is a positive influence of technology in homeschool education. Technology allowed the parents to feel like they had control over their child’s improvement. Gaither (2008) expressed that homeschooler associations with public and private school extra curricula activities, weekly enrichment classes, sports activities, college dual enrollment programs and other public services that would be covered by extended curriculum.


There are many virtual groups that support homeschool parent-teachers. We can have access to many online resources and curriculum materials through online sharing networks. We can find many websites, books, and blogs that are dedicated to assist us. I hope my reflections will be helpful to parent-teachers who might be questioning whether technology integration is beneficial for them.


I will publish my article in the Homeschool Today magazine.

Journal Submission Guidelines

Article submission in the email subject line.

Feature Articles

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  • Do not number pages or include headers.
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  • Verify all websites that you are referencing.







Andrade, A.G. (2008). An Exploratory Study of the Role of Technology in the Rise of Homeschooleading (Doctoral Dissertation), Retrieved from:

Apple, M. (2007). Who needs teacher education: gender, technology, and the work of homeschooling. Teacher Education Quarterly, 111-130.

Gaither, M. (2008). Why homeschooling happened. In Homeschool: An American History (pp.266-237). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Isenberg, E. J. (2007). What Have We Learned About Homeschooling? Peabody Journal of Education, 82(2-3), 387-409. doi:10.1080/01619560701312996

Martin-Chang, S., Gould, O., & Meuse, R. (2011). The impact of schooling on academic achievement: Evidence from homeschooled and traditionally schooled students. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 43(3), 195-202

Prepare to drive digital age learning. (n.d.). Retrieved August 04, 2017, from

Princiotta, D., & Bielick, S. (2014). The national household education survey, a survey

about homeschooling in America, (NCES 2) U.S. Department of Education.

National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, DC: 2014.

Ray, B.D. (2010). Academic Achievement and Demographic Traits of Homeschooled Students: A Nationwide Study, Academic Leadership Live, The Online Journal, 8(1) Winter 2010, retrieved from

Van ,D.(2012,April). Association for talent development. Designing Learning for a 21st Century Workforce. Retrived August 6, 2017.




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In this day and age, there are many people who do not have a clear vision and meaning throughout life. Even though they work hard, they do not feel like they are satisfied and happy. Being happy is not a straightforward process. To be happy, you need to know what you are passionate about, what you expect from life and what you could do to reach those desires and expectations. When you have a vision, you start living a life intentionally. Instead of others telling you what to do, you need to take charge of your own life.

Teaching is a lifelong learning process. My desire to help others and efforts to become a lifelong learner paved my path. They guided me through my life and helped me fulfill my dreams. On the way to improvement, I have faced many hardships, but they have only made me a stronger, more proficient person. Going through difficult experiences have given me the opportunity to understand and support others in similar situations.  I was looking forward to furthering my education, but It was impossible for me to do this in my current situation because I was a homeschooling mom. Later, I have learned that as an online student, I can pursue my education.

I did not know what to expect from Master’s program, and the professors and peers helped me adjust to this environment. Being in this master’s program has resulted in a confidence in my own abilities. I have gained self-confidence and built strong interpersonal skills. Taking the same classes together has helped to form relationships with amazing people from other majors who I probably wouldn’t get to know otherwise. Insightfully chosen course materials, videos, discussion boards and prompt feedbacks has assisted my learning skills. With reflections, I was able to share my own point of view with my professors and peers. Discussion boards supported me to process the information. Prompt feedbacks has been an essential because I have been able to monitor my own performance.

Being an online learner has been convenient but at the same time, it was challenging. The Digital Learning and Learning Program has allowed me to work at my own pace while balancing my family commitments. I could fit my education into my schedule without interfering in my personal life. At the beginning, I had two goals. The first one was to acquire innovative technology knowledge and the second one was to improve my leadership skills. This program covered a lot of experience and modern technology practice. On a cognitive level many things were demanded from us, so I had no choice but to develop or be left behind. I have gained proficiency in using several types of technology tools. As online courses became more writing-based, I learned to write more effectively through different assignments.

This program also helped me identify my weaknesses and take the time to turn those weaknesses into strengths, and even create new strengths. Now, I look at every failure as an experience and know success means doing my best, being my best, and I feel proud of my effort. Each course has provided me with a new professional growth and self-confidence for being the effective leader. Disruptive innovation taught me how important to embrace technological innovations as opportunities rather than challenges. I was able to enthusiastically use those changes as catalysts to enhance my teaching environment.

My innovation project is Blended-Homeschooling. Over time, my home-schooling philosophy and teaching method have evolved. Blended-Learning model has allowed me to use more technology-based and flexible learning options for my daughter.

Throughout the DLL, I have deeply understood how technology literacy is important, as pedagogy and how it impacts educational change in the digital learning age. As I progressed through the program, I gradually became more technology-competent. I have created my own e-portfolio. Before I thought that creating a website is almost impossible for me, only computer specialist can do this, but I have seen that everything is possible if you put dedication into it. When I think of the time I have spent trying to figure out how to create a website, it was so challenging but fun. There was a lot of “trial and error “part. Since then, I feel that I have learned a great deal about e-portfolio. I did a lot of research, I reviewed current technology trends, and wrote my first literature review. I analyzed that a shift to a more holistic view of learning can bring change in the learning environment. Designing my significant learning environment gave me the opportunity to get a better understanding of how important an overarching big hairy audacious goal (BHAG). Learning the six keys of influence assisted me to realize the features of a self-differentiated leader. I had a chance to make vital changes in the lives of my friends whom I interacted with, communicated with and shared the same values with. I was able to install and apply the 4 disciplines of execution (4DX) to bring about lasting change in people’s behavior in my organization. I have learned that if I touch people’s hearts, I could affect their minds’ as well. I explored how action research can be applied to measuring instructional methods and innovative approaches in instructional design.

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After I executed  Fink’s “A Self-Directed Guide to Designing Courses for Significant Learning”, and UbD template, my innovation plan made more sense to me. Experimenting several types of approaches allowed me to compare and contrast all of them. I was able to recognize my own teaching style base on learning theories to ensure success in an online environment. Creating an online course and professional development    for parent-teachers was a great experience. I studied and assessed global educational technology innovation projects to determine what worked and what could be done better and applied those lessons to my innovation project. I developed an understanding of digital citizenship and its implementation process.

I am nearing the completion of my Master’s Program. Overall, being in the DLL program was extremely rewarding and I am so proud of all the work I have done so far. I think that the benefits of the DLL went so far beyond the academic experience.




Blended Learning Effect on Student’s Academic Success

In the last decade, technological advancements have changed the face of education. Learners are growing up in a world where information and opportunities are just a finger tap away. Before school systems were founded, kids studied on an individual basis within the family unit. Over time, however, people grew, and societies molded. The schools were established to make information more accessible and available to everyone. In today’s education system majority of students are still attending traditional seat-based model, however, some families are looking for different alternatives that meet their child-centered educational needs. School isn’t the only choice for education anymore. There are so many communication and collaboration facilities for students to learn and work together. Nowadays, homeschool is seen as one of the most popular alternative ways to schooling by many families.

Through reviewing current trends, case studies, and articles, I have tried to obtain relevant information to support my Blended-Homeschool Project.  And my research has been backed up in a strong way. The purpose of my research was to determine if a blended learning approach has a positive effect on the homeschool students’ academic achievements.

Keywords: Blended- learning, information and communications technology, professional development

 Homeschooling – that is, parent-driven home-based instruction; home education – is a well-established traditional educational practice that, a decade ago, seemed to be innovative and “alternative” but is now verging on “standard” in the United States. (Ray,2015)


There are many reasons why parents settle on homeschooling, including disappointment with the public-school environment, instructional methods, or stuffed classrooms; want to join (or prohibit) certain religious beliefs; fear of school aggression; and the need to tailor instruction for special-needs students, just a few of them (Newton and Chittom,2016).

 Definitions, Features,and Models of Blended Learning

 There is a wide variety of explanations about blended learning, however, there is still misperceptions and misunderstandings about what it means. The definition varies from one school to another. One school’s “blended” could be another school’s “hybrid”, or another school’s” mixed-mode”. Since there is no well-defined meaning, blended learning is perceived as some unclear mixture of face-to-face and online instruction (Manninen,2014).  The Clayton Christensen Institute for Disruptive Innovation (2016) provides the most far-reaching definition of blended learning, explaining: “Blended learning involves leveraging the Internet to afford each student a more tailored learning experience, including improved student control over the time, place, path, and/or pace of learning” (n.p.). It is obvious that if novel technologies progress, blended learning definition will keep on changing.

 Defining Blended Learning Models

Even though there are many forms of blended learning models, there is no accepted classification yet. These are some of them to consider: face-to-face driver model, rotation model, flex model, online lab model, self-blend model, online driver model.

Ash (2012) identified three blended learning models:

Rotation model: Within a given course or subject, students rotate on a settled timetable or at the educator’s tact between learning modalities, no less than one of which is web-based learning (Carman,2014).

Flex Model: Instructions can always be derived from the internet and learners can move onward by self-centered schedules.

Self-blend Model: The self-blend model students take no less than one courses online to complement their traditional school’s curriculum. The online learning is always remote, which differentiates it from the online-lab model. All supplemental online schools that offer individual courses to individual students support self-blending (Staker, H,2011).

Why Blended-Learning?

Blended-Learning looks promising for our future education system. In the last decade, blended learning model has been gaining considerable attention across the nation as it brought-and still brings-education to life in the classroom, life at home, and life anywhere outside the walls. It combines traditional face to face classroom learning and web-based learning through the internet. Moreover, it allows students to grow at their own pace and provides the essential skills for this century (Horizon,2016).

Arnet, (2016) has mentioned that blended learning’s most powerful potential benefit is the fact that it can help educators to create an achievement-oriented culture in their classrooms. In addition, he indicates that the real enchantment of the blended learning model comes not from the technology itself alone, but from the ways the technology transforms how educators engage with and motivate their students (Arnet,2016). Osguthorpe and Graham (2003) classified six distinctive reasons that one might choose to use blended learning system: (1) pedagogical richness, (2) access to knowledge, (3) social interaction (4) personal agency (5) cost-effectiveness, and (6) ease of revision. Advocates say the advantages of mobile learning far outweigh the potential drawbacks (Shuler, 2009). Blended learning seems to outperform traditional classroom instruction in terms of effectiveness (Bernard, Borokhovski, Schmid, Tamim, & Abrami, 2014).

Moskal, Dzibuan, and Hartman (2013) expressed that blended learning has numerous advantages such as decreasing the workload of faculty members, leading the way for courses which have an innovative strategy, operative participation of learners and rich learning outcomes. In addition, it is also stated that communication and collaboration between students themselves and with the teacher increase as well (Joliffe, Ritter & Stevens, 2001).

In current education systems, students are a passive audience of lecture, the viewer of slides, note taker of lessons. Blended learning is a student-centered model that allows the learner to take his own learning responsibility. Blended learning gives the learner the chance to interact with other students, educators, and content through the online and face-to-face environment. Schools can enhance conventional classrooms by investigating blended learning choices that customize instruction (DeNisco,2014). Studies from associations such as Stanford University and the University of Tennessee have provided critical information about why blended learning is better than both traditional methods and individual forms of e-learning technology alone. With current information systems, instructors have an upgraded student information promptly and reliably available. According to the Horizon 2016 report, there will be rising amounts of online and blended learning offerings that complement traditional classroom activities. As the report notes, this can take many different forms from virtual laboratories to flipped classrooms. In education, the elements of online and face-to-face are stronger together than apart. Therefore, they must be implemented together. The power of blended learning also comes from online learning. Both the students and the teachers can be more technology literate with Blended Learning since this model corporates with technology. Blended Learning maintains deep learning by promoting continuous learning approaches.

In K–12 education, a recent study by the North American Council for Online Learning predicted that the blended approach is likely to emerge as the predominant model of instruction and become far more common than either conventional, purely face-to-face classroom instruction or instruction has done entirely online (Watson, 2008). Student fulfillment with the blended format is straightforwardly reliant upon the level of collaboration with educators and other learners. Instructors can build collaboration opportunities through face-to-face and personal dialog sessions. To engage with parents and school community, they can use ICT devices, for example, discussions, virtual conferencing, virtual world and web-based games, and utilizing portable tools, such as flip cameras and voice recorders.


Many educators want to identify whether blended learning has a positive influence on learners’ success. There are some inquiries that have been organized a few years ago, SRI international carried out these researchers about Blended learning from 1996-2006. In accordance with these studies’ outcome, blended learning courses surpassed those in fully-online or fully in-person courses. Researched audiences were college students or adult professional students. In 2013, K-12 Online learning, or INACOL in 2013 has conducted a study about Blended learning. It provides an outline of the literature on blended learning for the earlier few years, observing at explanations of the term, models and approaches, tools for personalization, designs of blended learning systems, and standards for proficiency in education. Michael & Susan Dell Foundation led SRI International and published in 2014. The report searched 13 low-income charter schools utilizing a rotation model of blended learning. The research focused on learner production, teacher approval, and the practice of data to give information about instruction. On the STEP literacy assessment, the percentage of students reading at “proficient” or “advanced” levels increased from 36% to 96%. On the MAP* test, 96% of KIPP Empower’s students in both reading and math, performed above the national average by the end of the school year.

National Education Policy Center conducted an inquiry about tailored instruction and distributed in 2013. It observed approaches for effective personalized learning and pointed out that a blend of tech-based and person-to-person based education indicates the greatest possible academic gains. To complement this, AND Corporation conducted a two-year study where they examined the efficacy of a technology-based algebra curriculum in many middle schools and high schools and published the result in 2013. In the first-year study, they found no remarkable outcome, then in the second-year, high school students utilizing the program enhanced their performance. Evaluation of the MIND Research Institute’s Spatial-Temporal Math (ST Math) Program in California,” organized by WestEd in 2014. The report observed the game-based, blended learning math instruction program and determined that as fully executed, it upgraded students’ math scores considerably.

Regarding technology tools and their potential pedagogical impact on student learning, Hew & Cheung (2012) analyzed experimental studies in which Web 2.0 tools were employed in K-12 and higher education settings to determine their impact on student learning. Results indicated that the impact of podcasts, wikis, blogs, Twitter, and the use of virtual worlds was either positive or neutral.

 Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)

Currently, Information and Communication Technologies(ICT)are accepted to be the most influential tools for the help of the teaching and learning process. The success of ICT integration relies profoundly on these three factors: school infrastructure, technical support, and teacher assistants (Venezky, 2014). In recent years many studies had been conducted around the world to see whether ICT help to broaden access to education and improve learning outcomes or not. The case studies examined the factors associated with the adoption of the technology and the patterns of distribution of ICT usage through schools.

Technology usage is rising every day and technological innovations have a moderate impact on students’ success (Ecar, 2015). Information and communication technologies provide exciting possibilities to enhance the quality of education. A well-designed classroom is essential and has a major effect on learning as it leads to inspirational teaching methods and learning styles (Meeker, 2015). Teachers or learning coaches should design their learning space according to their class needs.

Education can be enriched by integrating ICT into traditional educational activities because ICT has the capacity to enhance the learning process. The movability of mobile technologies enables students to access resources and collaborative tools almost flawlessly as they make their personal and educational activities (Corbeil and ValdesCorbeil, 2007; Park, 2011; Wallace, 2011).

ICT must be used to cultivate deeper, inquiry-based learning rather than just providing content. In North America designing the learning spaces was very innovative and it fostered collaborative learning. (Fritschi & Wolf, 2012).




There are some barriers to mobile learning like cost of mobile devices, concerns about the misuse of mobile devices, teachers, and parents’ mindsets and attitudes, lack of teacher training and support. Even though students are using technology extensively in their classrooms, it is obvious that these technological tools not used potentially for academic purpose (Ecar, 2015). Mobile phones are generally considered to be disturbing to education and their use in school is constrained in many European countries. Parents and teachers assume that the devices are little more than distracting toys with limited educational value. Many parents and educators also worry that mobile phones enable inappropriate behaviors like cheating and cyber-bullying.

The ‘distraction factor’ is the primary concern that has led many districts to ban mobile devices from school altogether (Wallace 2011). Many people believe that allowing students to use mobile devices in school would disrupt rather than enhance learning. The Eurydice network, which collects and compiles data on education and training in Europe, published a report in 2009 on the safe use of mobile phones (EACEA/Eurydice, 2010). The report has stated that cyberbullying in schools has become a topic of growing concern in the last few years.

Inappropriate student behavior, including cheating, cyber-bullying and ‘sexting’ is a major concern for administrators, teachers, and parents in Europe. According to recent studies: One-third of teens with mobile phones have admitted to cheating with them, and two-thirds of all teens have reported that others in their school cheat with mobile phones (Common Sense Media, 2009). Twenty-six percent of teenagers have stated receiving bullying or harassing text messages or phone calls (Lenhart et al., 2010). Four percent of teens have informed sending a sexually inappropriate image via text message, and fifteen percent have reported receiving a text of that kind (Lenhart et al., 2010).

According to the UNESCO in North America, perhaps the biggest obstacle to mobile is learning is the way people feel about mobile phones in education. (Corbeil and Valdes-Corbeil, 2007).


Mobile technologies can also support teachers personalize their own professional learning (Bjerede and Dede, 2011). Teachers who practice mobile devices have more flexible access to a wider variety of professional development options. Mobile courses and training programmes are being developed that deliver content in small growths, allowing teachers to take advantage of completing courses in five- to ten-minute intervals, rather than taking a lot of time from their already busy schedules (Vanthournout and Koch, 2008). Teachers are using smartphones, laptops, and tablets to engage and enliven their classrooms.  However, faculty and students need support and training to improve digital literacy (Horizon 2016).


Now, in the center of an informational transformation, parent-teachers have the duty to think cautiously through what model to choose for their children. Technology has affected all kinds of education, including homeschooling. Parents can select options to completely customize their child’s education. There are a wide variety of support systems, curricular materials, and online support services available at any time and at anywhere. ICT tools have opened teachers’ and learning coaches’ horizon. Today’s educator’s job is easier with access to almost limitless content and they have potential to be better educators with these facilities. The influence on the K-12 system has been intense on education. Through online courses, great instructors, and limitless information, the intimidating part of homeschooling has disappeared. The homeschooling is now more about pondering through what parent-teachers want their child to learn and study. There are many websites to support learning coaches to do that. The diverse types of ICT tool provide opportunities for the socialization deficiencies of homeschooling. Although it is difficult to see what the future holds, we can be sure that blended learning holds great potential and will be growing in a few years. Now, there are many beneficial reasons for teachers, coaches or learners to pick blended learning over other learning options.


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ASH, K. (2012). BLENDED LEARNING CHOICES. Education Week, 32(9), S4.

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Over the past five weeks I learned about Ribble’s nine elements of digital citizenship, before taking this course, I had limited information about digital citizenship. Learning about copyrights and copywrongs was very enlightening. Honestly, there were many things I had not known before this course. This course allowed me to get a good grasp of how digital citizenship can be applied in real life. The required course resources were extremely detailed and helped me comprehend the material.

My biggest accomplishment in this course was learning about digital footprint. I am now more responsibly using digital tools and trying to create positive digital footprint. I have been trying to enlighten my whole family about this, since my children are teens, and can easily leave negative footprints about themselves. The other accomplishment for me was creating PowToon. Even though it took me many hours to figure out the functions of the PowToon, at the end it paid off. I had a very fruitful video that hopefully will inform others the way it helped me.

I must confess that this course was the most challenging course so far. I was overwhelmed by how much work I was required to do. Completing all the required readings, discussion board prompts, videos, weekly assignments, reflections and quizzes were really time consuming. Since this course had distinct types of formats I had tough time until I got used to it. But in the end, I have become even more digitally literate.

My best work for the course was probably the reflections I wrote in every week because it allowed me to think about digital citizenship elements that can be applied in my homeschool settings. Finishing assignments and case studies provided me with deep understanding of the digital citizenship concept. Among the meaningful things I learned in this course, the most useful ones were Digital footprint and Fair Use. I think Digital citizenship is not a one-time lesson and that it is a very important topic. Therefore it should be extended into two courses to make it easy to understand. Because of this course, not only did I benefit, but I have also spread the word to my family.

As a parent, I am even more aware of the importance of cyberbullying and digital dishonesty. I believe now I can assist the other parent-teachers more effectively.

This is one of the most developed online classes that I have ever taken. I must say that the past five weeks have been extremely challenging but valuable to me. Throughout this course I learned very valuable information about digital citizenship It is necessary to learn digital citizenship and its components. I would suggest that the other students should read the weekly assignments carefully and take in information slowly but consistently.

I would also help to take notes and finish quizzes beforehand. Whenever they have chance, they should reread the required materials. Overall, it was very informative course to take to better understand digital citizenship. I fully understood that our actions in the digital world can have an influence on others. I suggest these things because I learned a lot in the course that gave me new insight and value, but it came with hard work.


Ohler, J. (2012). Digital citizenship means character education for the digital age. Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 77(8), 14-17. (PDF: Ohler_Digital_citizenship_means_character_education_2012.pdf)

Ribble, M. (2016). Nine Elements. Retrieved October 7, 2017, from


My digital citizenship mantra is”Be respectful, responsible and productive both in person and online”.

My digital citizenship related video can be seen here


Understanding the Digital Citizenship Elements


In today’s technology-driven world, the internet is the most inclusive and easily accessible source of information. As it is being more available to everyone, schools, educators and parents are understanding that there is another component to education that cannot be overlooked; digital citizenship. Digital citizenship is gaining more attention due to recent events stemming from cyberbullying suicides and other Internet-related issues. The purpose of this literature review is to analyze primarily digital citizenship and its nine elements.

The Elements of Digital Citizenship

Digital citizenship is a very broad topic and everybody has their own point of view about it, but they all come down to the same concept. Ribble (2015) describes digital citizenship as” It is the safe, savvy and ethical use of the Internet. Terry Heik (2015) defines digital citizenship as “The quality of habits, actions, and consumption forms that impact the ecology of digital content and communities”. On the digital citizenship website, digital citizenship has been described as “It is the norms of appropriate, responsible technology use”. My interpretation of digital citizenship is simply being respectful, responsible and productive while using digital environment. According to Ribble and Bailey (2007), digital citizenship includes nine different dimensions: digital access, digital commerce, digital communication, digital literacy, digital etiquette, digital law, digital rights and responsibilities, digital health and wellness, and digital security. Nine elements of digital citizenship are interdependent to each other. In order to make it easy to understand the digital citizenship, Ribble categorizes the nine elements under the three relevant principles: Respect, Educate and Protect.

Digital Access

This is the first element of digital citizenship. Digital access ensures the complete participation of all citizens in an electronic environment and is outlined as “full electronic participation in society”(Ribble , 2017).

Digital Commerce

Digital commerce is the second principle of digital citizenship that means electronically buying and selling of goods. Digital natives are consumer and outcome-oriented so they really like to purchase online. But unfortunately, they do not have the experience to buy things online. They lack knowledge of sensitive information of online shopping. This concept is probably the most troublesome component of digital citizenship for teachers to address in the classroom. Educators may think it is not their obligation to instruct students to be informed, however, online purchasing has become a key factor in students’ lives, making it mandatory to teach all aspects of these online transactions (Ribble,2015).

Digital Communication

The third tenet of digital citizenship is “digital communication” which basically states the exchange of information. In the19th-century people started using letters, telegraphs, and telephones in order to contact people and make business in other towns and countries. Advancements in technology significantly shifted the way people interacted with one another. Out of all of the ways of communications, the internet is the most common tool. For that reason, people need to know the basics of online communication. In daily life, many people or companies use e-mail as it provides a record of the message. The issue of disrespect online seems to occur because of the fact that online communication is not same as speaking to someone face-to-face. Companies are much more disrespectful online than in person.

Digital Literacy

The fourth of the digital citizenship component is called “digital literacy” which is the skill to complete tasks effectively in a digital environment. Digitally literate people can read, reproduce, evaluate and apply new knowledge gained from digital environments.

Ohler (2012) expresses that digital citizenship or “character education” should be the main concern for educators. Technology-infused learning is being universal every day so teachers should be digitally literate to foster a sense of digital citizenship.  Even though digital tools are available in most schools, teachers are slow to transform the ways they teach because many lack the knowledge or skill of using digital tools.  Technology is here to stay, so teachers should try to meet the student’s actual needs and help them in complementing their education using technology in a meaningful way. Instead of participating irrelated seminars or workshops, admins and teachers should get necessary training and guidance about being a good digital citizen.  Designers of digital tools and educators should corporate with each other.

Digital Etiquette

Digital etiquette means being aware of ethical rules while using virtual environment. Common sense, politeness, and respect are the three indispensable components that everybody should keep in mind when digital etiquette is mentioned. From an early age, students should be educated about the appropriate and inappropriate ways to treat one another. It is essential that students transfer that understanding of appropriate behavior into the digital world. They should fully understand that their actions in the digital world can have an influence on others.

Many of the students right now, unfortunately, do not care about digital citizenship and moral values. They believe that they should be allowed to use anything on the internet. Both parents and schools ought to be in charge of teaching children the appropriate meaning of digital etiquette. Everyone, including homeschool students, should also learn to effectively and responsibly use technology.

Digital Law

The digital law is “the electronic obligation for actions and deeds” (Ribble, 2011, p. 31). It involves legal topics like intellectual assets and copyright laws. Copyright laws avoid the reproduction, distribution, modification, performance, etc. of another person’s intellectual work. With the internet, information can be accessed or shared very easily and quickly, but we should always remember our responsibility and consider the appropriateness of the material. While using someone’s work, we should give credit to the author of the copyright holder. Disregarding the laws and obligations do not protect us from confronting the real consequences in the physical world. Parents and educators should address the appropriate conduct, the best practices for technology use and the consequences for misconduct of technological resources.


Digital Rights and Responsibilities

The sixth element of digital citizenship is digital rights and responsibilities. People are establishing connections with other people in the digital world and should, therefore, act according to rights and responsibilities. The Internet provides more freedom and rights than the real world. As long as internet users know their limit and accountability, digital technology has the potential to open many doors. Everybody should be aware of this privilege and should act accordingly. All the internet users are members of the digital world, and they have right to express themselves freely in the virtual environment.  Digital rights and responsibilities are particularly important to my organization because homeschool students and parents are the main users of the internet.

Digital Wellness and Health

Digital wellness and health is another element of digital citizenship which defines the means of being physically and mentally well.

According to research that was conducted, Pew Internet Project (2012) teenagers and adults are very occupied with technology and social interactions. Some 95% of teens ages 12-17 are online, 76% use social networking sites, and 77% have cell phones. Moreover, 96% of those ages 18-29 are internet users, 84% use social networking sites, and 97% have cell phones. Apparently, Googling, emailing, texting and online chatting is becoming a very significant part of our daily life. After this online engagement, while some people can easily unplug themselves from the internet, others might find it very difficult to disengage from the appealing sides of internet use.

Unfortunately, using digital technology frequently can cause a physical and mental disorder. People who are exposed to the internet for extended periods of time have a hard time of focusing because their attention span reduces, and later on in life, they cannot even complete a single task. Alvaro Retana, a notable technologist with Hewlett-Packard, shares concerns about human ability and future challenges and he states that the short attention spans resulting from the quick interactions will be detrimental to focusing on the harder problems, and he expects stagnation in many areas: technology, even social places such as literature”. Another problem that is quickly escalating all around the world is called internet addiction. Like other types of addictions, it makes users dependent and withdrawn from the real world. In the long-term, those types of people can harm themselves or others, and the outcomes may be very detrimental. In addition, children spend a great deal of time with the computer causing obesity, carpal tunnel, and eye strain. Rapidly flashing images can even trigger epileptic seizures, as indicated by authors of “The Impact of Home Computer Use on Children’s Activities and Development,” published by Princeton University. People should be aware of these dangers that the internet holds.

Digital Security:

Digital security is the last element of digital citizenship. Today, increasing number of individuals are consistently involving with digital devices and environments. Digital security covers protecting ourselves and others from outside effects that might cause harm. Throughout online interaction, more sensitive data is recorded, which is why protecting the information should be everyone’s priority. The advantages of technology are apparent – but there are also some security threats. We install security systems to protect our home, and we should possess the same concern for internet connections. We need to be aware of the possible risks and should take precautions to ensure our safety in the virtual environment.

Digital Footprint

Information technology has brought a lot of convenience in life. It has never been so easy to access things with little effort for such a low cost. From the comfort of our home, we can do many things. No matter what the purpose is, wherever internet is used, people leave a footprint behind, which is referred to as “Digital Footprint”. Digital footprints can be left with many ways like web searches, credit card purchases, bank accounts, phone records, medical records and so on.

The digital footprint is unique like fingerprints. It’s like a digital passport that keeps track of where we are on the internet.  We have both an intentional and unintentional digital footprint (Ohler,2015). The intentional footprint is one that noticeable, consciously created, proactive, manageable and controllable. The unintentional footprint is one that is uncontrollable, passive and unnoticeable.


In his article (2001) Marc Prensky calls the 21st-century adults as an immigrant of this age and the new generation as a digital native. According to him, today’s students are the first generations to grow up with modern technology.

No doubt, the internet is the most remarkable innovation and if it is used properly it can be an extremely useful tool for everyone. However, like every other invention, it has a gray side. Children, whose age and psychology are immature to understand the inappropriate contents, face the danger of growing up with a distorted and even psychic psychology due to some ill sites like virtual casinos, internet cafes, virtual matchmaking and pornographic sites.

Instant messaging, chat rooms, emails, and social networking sites might lead problems like cyberbullying. In recent years, there have been so many situations in the media that informs kids are suffering from cyberbullying in and out of the school. Even though homeschool learners’ physical interaction with their friends is limited, they might be the victim of cyberbullying without their parent’s notice. Due to these types of problems, they may have to face terrible outcomes and consequences. Cyberbullying is described as “willful and repeated harm caused using computers, cell phones, and other electronic devices” (Hinduja & Patchin, 2015). It consists of posting humiliating videos, sending hateful-harassing messages, making offensive comments, spreading lies, and even death threats on social media profiles. Even though the online world is open to every age group, particularly the teenagers are the ones primarily exposed to interact with virtual strangers. Since they lack life experience, they are not able to handle possible threats appropriately and they eventually make mistakes.

Ferriter (2011) points out that “Students who see digital tools as vehicles for collective action around ideas they believe in are less likely to engage in risky behaviors online because they see social media spaces as forums for learning first and entertainment second”. Consequently, the problem occurs when students see social media forums as an entertainment first and learning second.


This culminating essay is the conclusion of what I have grasped in four weeks. During this course, I have learned a lot of valuable information. This course provided new insights and a fresh perspective including nine digital citizenship elements, digital footprint, cyberbullying and much more.

I think it was lack of foresight to present internet to the public before preparing the internet infrastructure and rules. It is obvious that digitally literate parent’s only can make a notable difference by modeling and inspire the students with proper usage of digital tools. So, our duty is to instruct our children about being protected online and show how to be a good Digital Citizen. If we show and challenge our learners to think about appropriate ways to utilize technology tools, they could think critically and interact responsibly in our digital world (Common Sense Media, 2016).

The Internet is being an important part of teaching and learning every year.   Nevertheless, many students, educators, and parents still do not know how to use technology appropriately. Like every innovation, the internet has some cons. While enjoying the advantages of the internet, we should be aware of its dark side and take the necessary steps to avoid online hazards. At school digital citizenship should be given as a curriculum. Every year educators are facing diverse types of problems. Students’ problems and needs are exposed to change; therefore, rules and policies should be altered to meet learner needs in schools. There should be programs that are prepared by the school community. These communities should consist of teachers, counselors, librarians, educational technology and curriculum specialists, and IT managers. All the members should actively engage in the process and take the required training for the success of the program. After all, is done, students can be expected to behave as they should in the digital world, both within the school and outside of the school.




Ferriter, W. M. (2011). Digitally Speaking. Educational Leadership68(7), 92.

Heick,T. (2013). The Definition of Digital Citizenship. Retrieved from

Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2015). Bullying beyond the schoolyard: Preventing and responding to cyperbullying. (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Ohler, J. (2012). Digital citizenship means character education for the digital age. Education Ohler, J. (2012). Digital citizenship means character education for the digital age. Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 77(8), 14-17. (PDF: Ohler_Digital_citizenship_means_character_education_2012pdf)

Ohler, J. (2015). Digital Footprints, Digital Citizenship Beyond School. Retrieved September 16, 2017, from

Prensky, M. (October ,2001). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants, 9(5). Retrieved October 4, 2017, from

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Ribble, M. (2011). Digital citizenship in schools. Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education.

Ribble, M. (2015). Digital Citizenship in Schools: Nine Elements All Students Should Know. International Society for Technology in Education.

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Subrahmanyam, K., Kraut, R. E., Greenfield, P. M., & Gross, E. F. (2000). The Impact of Home Computer Use on Children’s Activities and Development. Retrieved September 27, 2017, from





 Digital Citizenship Badge Graphic



This week in Digital Citizenship class we focused on cyberbullying issue. After reading required text book and watching videos I gained a new insight and a fresh perspective on cyberbullying. Especially Monica Lewinsky’s video: “The price of shame” was eye-opening for me. One more time I understand that making empathy is crucial in every aspect of life because a world without it would be chaotic and vulgar.

No doubt, internet is the most remarkable innovation and if it is used properly it can be an extremely useful tool for everyone. However, like every other invention it has gray side that people need to be aware of it. Apparently instant messaging, chat rooms, emails and social networking sites are leading diverse types of problems like cyberbullying, pedophiles, pornography and bad reputation.   In recent years there have been so many situations in the media that informs children are suffering from cyberbullying in and out of the school and the number of the victims are increasing every day. Due to literal distance some people speak more straightforwardly, harsher or crueler than their real-life interactions with the other people. So, what is cyberbullying? Cyberbullying is described as “willful and repeated harm caused using computers, cell phones, and other electronic devices” (Hinduja & Patchin, 2015). Cyberbullying consists of posting humiliating videos, sending hateful-harassing messages or even death threats, spreading lies, making offensive comments on social media profiles.

There are several types of cyberbullying. These are frequently encountered types of cyberbullying ones: Harassment, flaming, exclusion, outing, masquerading.

Even though online world is open to every age group particularly the teenagers are the most exposed to interact with virtual strangers. Since they do not have enough life experience most of the time they are not able to handle possible threats appropriately and make mistake. It is so sad to see that our kids are suffering from cyberbullying.

My generation was so lucky because after school we could go out of our homes and play games with friends on the streets. But this century’s children’s life style has changed due to technologic innovations. Moms and dads are both working, they came very tired and exhausted from work. Unfortunately, most of the parents are using digital tools like a nanny. Parents often do not know what games their kids play or what website they enter. They are not aware the hazard they may encounter. They close their door to foreigners but welcome numerous ones by internet. Or another handicap is arising silently. Parents have different points of view about using technology. While one of the parent give permission using technology the other one tries to limit and control the kid. In between two different idea kids do not know which approach is the correct one. Generally, kids take advantage of it.

What can be done to avoid online threats? Children use technology to search, communicate and socialize. At this point, courtesy, respect, common sense is three critical component that should be taught to our kids at home. Gist of the matter we should teach our kids to treat others the way they want to be treated.  We must make sure that our children are safe on their own. If it is not safe playing on   the street alone it must not be safe also to play games on the internet alone. First responsibility is parents then teachers and whole society.

We are now establishing connections with other people, both physically and in the digital world.  Just as we act according to our rights and responsibilities in the physical world, similar norms apply to digital environments. At school digital citizenship should be given in curriculum. Every year educators are facing diverse types of problems Students problems and needs are changing therefore rules and policies should also be changed in schools. There should be programs that is prepared by school community. This community should consist of teachers, counsellors, librarians, educational technology and curriculum specialists, IT managers. All the members should actively engage to the process and take the required trainings   for success of the program. After all this is done students can be expected to behave as they should be in the digital world, both within the school and outside the school.




Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2015). Bullying beyond the schoolyard: Preventing and responding to cyperbullying. (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Cyberbullying What Is Cyberbullying? [Digital image]. (n.d.). Retrieved September 30, 2017, from


Castile, H. (2013). Cyberbullying : an exploration of secondary school administrators’ experiences with cyberbullying incidents in Louisiana. [Beaumont, Texas] : Lamar University, 2013.

Cyberbullying. [electronic resource (video)] : cruel intentions. (2007). New York, N.Y. : Films Media Group, [2007], c2006.

Hébert, M., Cénat, J. M., Blais, M., Lavoie, F., & Guerrier, M. (2016). Child sexual abuse, bullying, cyberbullying, and mental health problems among high schools students: A moderated mediated model. Depression And Anxiety33(7), 623-629. doi:10.1002/da.22504

Machimbarrena, J. M., & Garaigordobil, M. (2017). Bullying/Cyberbullying in 5th and 6th grade: Differences between public and private schools. Anales De Psicología33(2), 319-326. doi:10.6018/analesps.33.2.249381

Williford, A., & Depaolis, K. J. (2016). Predictors of cyberbullying intervention among elementary school staff: The moderating effect of staff status. Psychology In The Schools53(10), 1032-1044. doi:10.1002/pits.21973