This week in Digital Citizenship class we focused on cyberbullying issue. After reading required text book and watching videos I gained a new insight and a fresh perspective on cyberbullying. Especially Monica Lewinsky’s video: “The price of shame” was eye-opening for me. One more time I understand that making empathy is crucial in every aspect of life because a world without it would be chaotic and vulgar.

No doubt, internet is the most remarkable innovation and if it is used properly it can be an extremely useful tool for everyone. However, like every other invention it has gray side that people need to be aware of it. Apparently instant messaging, chat rooms, emails and social networking sites are leading diverse types of problems like cyberbullying, pedophiles, pornography and bad reputation.   In recent years there have been so many situations in the media that informs children are suffering from cyberbullying in and out of the school and the number of the victims are increasing every day. Due to literal distance some people speak more straightforwardly, harsher or crueler than their real-life interactions with the other people. So, what is cyberbullying? Cyberbullying is described as “willful and repeated harm caused using computers, cell phones, and other electronic devices” (Hinduja & Patchin, 2015). Cyberbullying consists of posting humiliating videos, sending hateful-harassing messages or even death threats, spreading lies, making offensive comments on social media profiles.

There are several types of cyberbullying. These are frequently encountered types of cyberbullying ones: Harassment, flaming, exclusion, outing, masquerading.

Even though online world is open to every age group particularly the teenagers are the most exposed to interact with virtual strangers. Since they do not have enough life experience most of the time they are not able to handle possible threats appropriately and make mistake. It is so sad to see that our kids are suffering from cyberbullying.

My generation was so lucky because after school we could go out of our homes and play games with friends on the streets. But this century’s children’s life style has changed due to technologic innovations. Moms and dads are both working, they came very tired and exhausted from work. Unfortunately, most of the parents are using digital tools like a nanny. Parents often do not know what games their kids play or what website they enter. They are not aware the hazard they may encounter. They close their door to foreigners but welcome numerous ones by internet. Or another handicap is arising silently. Parents have different points of view about using technology. While one of the parent give permission using technology the other one tries to limit and control the kid. In between two different idea kids do not know which approach is the correct one. Generally, kids take advantage of it.

What can be done to avoid online threats? Children use technology to search, communicate and socialize. At this point, courtesy, respect, common sense is three critical component that should be taught to our kids at home. Gist of the matter we should teach our kids to treat others the way they want to be treated.  We must make sure that our children are safe on their own. If it is not safe playing on   the street alone it must not be safe also to play games on the internet alone. First responsibility is parents then teachers and whole society.

We are now establishing connections with other people, both physically and in the digital world.  Just as we act according to our rights and responsibilities in the physical world, similar norms apply to digital environments. At school digital citizenship should be given in curriculum. Every year educators are facing diverse types of problems Students problems and needs are changing therefore rules and policies should also be changed in schools. There should be programs that is prepared by school community. This community should consist of teachers, counsellors, librarians, educational technology and curriculum specialists, IT managers. All the members should actively engage to the process and take the required trainings   for success of the program. After all this is done students can be expected to behave as they should be in the digital world, both within the school and outside the school.




Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2015). Bullying beyond the schoolyard: Preventing and responding to cyperbullying. (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Cyberbullying What Is Cyberbullying? [Digital image]. (n.d.). Retrieved September 30, 2017, from


Castile, H. (2013). Cyberbullying : an exploration of secondary school administrators’ experiences with cyberbullying incidents in Louisiana. [Beaumont, Texas] : Lamar University, 2013.

Cyberbullying. [electronic resource (video)] : cruel intentions. (2007). New York, N.Y. : Films Media Group, [2007], c2006.

Hébert, M., Cénat, J. M., Blais, M., Lavoie, F., & Guerrier, M. (2016). Child sexual abuse, bullying, cyberbullying, and mental health problems among high schools students: A moderated mediated model. Depression And Anxiety33(7), 623-629. doi:10.1002/da.22504

Machimbarrena, J. M., & Garaigordobil, M. (2017). Bullying/Cyberbullying in 5th and 6th grade: Differences between public and private schools. Anales De Psicología33(2), 319-326. doi:10.6018/analesps.33.2.249381

Williford, A., & Depaolis, K. J. (2016). Predictors of cyberbullying intervention among elementary school staff: The moderating effect of staff status. Psychology In The Schools53(10), 1032-1044. doi:10.1002/pits.21973



imagesI can say this week was very overwhelming and stressful for me because my daughter and my little son were both sick. Beside that I had to deal with a lot of other things. After reading and viewing videos on plagiarism, copyright infringement, fair use, and other required topics I have gained a lot of valuable information but to be honest, some of the things are still unclear to me. My hope is when I have time I will carefully reread and try to understand the cloudy parts of copyrights and copywrongs.
I would like to share this week’s learning outcomes with you:
Information technology not only has brought opportunities but also responsibilities to us. While we communicate, meet and share information we need to act more responsibly. Whether we are writing an essay, a book or preparing a lesson to present information in multiple formats, at some point, we use someone else’s work. While doing this we need to get permission from the original author or copyright holder. Author or copyright holder work very hard to create something unique and we took them in a few seconds and most of the time we do not give credit. We need to treat others the way we want to be treated. So what is copy right?
Copyright is the legal right to use and copy the information, thoughts, works of art and product that a person or persons intellectual labor. Copyrights begin with the production of the work and they generally apply for a certain period of time. To gain a right we do not need registration. The copyright symbol is a ” C ” in the circle, indicating that person copyright is protected. Copyright protection is one of the basic human rights. Whether the C symbol is used or not; if you have original idea and product that means your work is copyrighted as long as you create a tangible form of your work. According to Article 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.
Plagiarism: Using another person’s words, ideas, or information without acknowledgment is called plagiarism. It has been defined by the Encyclopedia Britannica as “the act of taking the writings of another person and passing them off as one’s own.”
It was interesting to learn that plagiarism often covers things that are not covered by copyright. Ideas, facts and general plot elements are all things that can be plagiarized, but generally don’t qualify for copyright protection (Bailey, 2013).
Copyright infringement: A copyright infringement is a violation of an individual or organization’s copyright.
Attribution: It is an acknowledgment as a credit to the copyright holder or author of a work.
Transformation: I am not sure about this but my understanding from transformation is copying of copyrighted material for a limited purpose and commenting upon, critiquing or parodying a copyrighted material.
In addition, I have also grasped what Fair Use is. It basically gives exceptions to the rights of copyright holders in particular cases, permitting people to use portions of works for non-profit, academic, and other purposes only if those users stay within certain limits.
As parent-teachers, we have the vital role to teach our kids the value of respecting other people’s work and words and show how to avoid the risks and consequences of plagiarism and other types of academic dishonesty. Our children should know that like any kind of stealing plagiarism is also a type of stealing and it is wrong. Modeling is a highly effective instructional strategy in that as it allows kids to understand the new practice. Children are influenced by the people around them, but our actions and attitudes have the strongest influence on them.Setting a good example is our most significant duty to our kids.


Attribution (copyright). (2017, August 30). Retrieved September 19, 2017, from

Bailey, J. (2013, October). The Difference Between Copyright Infringement and Plagiarism – Plagiarism Today. Retrieved from

Christenson, P. (2012, November 13). Copyright Infringement Definition. Retrieved 2017, Sep 18, from of academia

Dhammi, I. K., & Ul Haq, R. (2016). What is plagiarism and how to avoid it? Indian Journal of Orthopedics50(6), 581-583.

Jawad F. Plagiarism and integrity in research. J Pak Med Assoc 2013;63:1446-7.

Pechnick JA. A Short Guide to Writing about Biology. 4th ed. New York: Addison Wesley Longman; 2001.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (n.d.). Retrieved September 19, 2017, from


Espejo, R. (2009). Copyright infringement. Detroit : Greenhaven Press, c2009.

Leonard, K. (2009). Copyright or Copy Wrong?. American Libraries, (1/2), 79.

Plagiarism 2.0. [electronic resource (video)] : Information Ethics in the Digital Age. (2011). New York, N.Y. : Films Media Group, [2011], c2011.

Prasad, A., & Agarwalai, A. (2009). Revisiting the Historical ‘Copy-wrongs’ of ‘Copy-rights’! Are we resurrecting the Licensing era?. Journal Of International Commercial Law & Technology4(4), 231-237.

Starovoytova, D. (2017). Plagiarism under a Magnifying-Glass. Journal Of Education And Practice8(15), 109-129



The Internet has changed our lives and the way how we interact with one another. It has never been so easy to access in so little effort for so low cost. From the comfort of our home, we can do many things by using the internet: searching, surfing, chatting, learning, entertaining, making money, or wasting time. No matter what the purpose is whenever we use the internet we leave a mark behind us called digital footprint.

A few years ago, my friend and I were having a conversation and I was telling her about a newly opened store close to my home and how clean and nicely designed it was. The next day, related ads popped up on my smartphone screen. I was worried that my smartphone might be listening into my conversations. I thought it was not a coincidence. I take my phone everywhere with me. After searching up about it I have learned that what I buy, what I research, what ads I see or share online are recorded. Now I am more careful about my online activities. It was very interesting to learn companies, marketers, and advertisers use cookies to track our online interest and preferences. Our dilemma is even though we know a lot of information about us is stored with/without our knowledge, most of us still use default settings on our phone or PCs. In addition, we do not invest time to learn how to handle privacy issues. This week we have focused on the digital footprint. I have gained extensive knowledge about digital footprint and shared them with my family. The digital footprint is unique like our fingerprints cause us to leave characteristic traces behind us. We have a both an intentional and unintentional digital footprint(Ohler,2015). The intentional footprint is one that noticeable, consciously created, proactive, manageable and controllable. The unintentional footprint is one that is uncontrollable, passive and unnoticeable. We can leave our digital footprint with many ways like web searches, credit card purchases, bank accounts, phone records, medical records and so on. I think the most important one is our credit card statements since our lifestyle is hidden in them and they give a lot of confidential information about us. Web searches is another place that provides data about us. Moreover, websites give personalized advertisements according to our search behaviors. GPS sensors show our exact location where we go that can be stored for later use or tracked by third parties. Our social media accounts allow others to track every minute of our life our information is accessible by website managers. As we see we are leaking plenty of information about us without realizing it for companies our digital footprints are valuable commercial resources. They share or sell this gathered information to third party companies. In the digital world, we need to learn to make meaningful contributions and take more responsibility for our actions. We should always remember If we post something on the internet even if we delete, it stays there forever. there are some positive aspects of the digital footprint as well. I have fully understood the fact employers are following employee trail’s, Now I know how to control and keep professional of my digital footprint. I am more careful while giving out my confidential information, sending and receiving e-mails, or sharing social media. A few days ago, I have done my footprint search. I did not have any negative results. But I have realized that I need to create a positive digital footprint. I have a profile on Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, LinkedIn,.I am proud of and comfortable with it being viewed by my employer or other persons.

As a conclusion, I would like to say we should always remember If we post something on the internet even if we delete, it stays there forever. It is vital to consider what trail of data we are leaving behind, the less we leave marks on the Internet, the better for us. In the digital world, it is our duty to learn to make meaningful contributions and take more responsibility for our actions.



Ohler, J. (2015). Digital Footprints, Digital Citizenship Beyond School. Retrieved September 16, 2017, from


Digital footprint. (2016). Salem Press Encyclopedia,

Kurtis, H. (2013). What size is your digital footprint?. The Phi Delta Kappan, (7), 14.

Stephen D., W., & Mark, G. (2007). Constructing, Visualizing, and Analyzing a Digital Footprint. Geographical Review, (3), 324.

THE TECHNOLOGY TAIL A Digital Footprint Story. (2017). Kirkus Reviews85(14), 407.

Wang, X., Fang, Z., & Guo, X. (2016). Tracking the digital footprints to scholarly articles from social media. Scientometrics109(2), 1365-1376. doi:10.1007/s11192-016-2086-z